Peru is a country in South America that’s home to a section of Amazon rainforest and Machu Picchu, an ancient Incan city high in the Andes mountains. The region around Machu Picchu, including the Sacred Valley, Inca Trail and colonial city of Cusco, is rich in archaeological sites. On Peru’s arid Pacific coast is Lima, the capital, with a preserved colonial center and important collections of pre-Columbian art.

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Country Profile

Population 30.7 million
Border Countries Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile
Capital City Lima
Currency Peruvian Sol
Language Spanish (official) 84.1%, Quechua (official) 13%, Aymara (official) 1.7%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages) 0.7%, other (includes foreign languages and sign language) 0.2%
Religion Roman Catholic 81.3%, Evangelical 12.5%, other 3.3%, none 2.9%
Type of Government Presidential Republic
% living in poverty Poverty headcount ratio at national poverty lines: 21.8%
Population living on less than $10 per day: 60.7%
Life Expectancy 74.8 years
Infectious Diseases Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever.
Vectorborne disease: dengue fever, malaria, and Bartonellosis (Oroya fever)
Zika risk.
Top Killers Lower respiratory infections, heart disease
Literacy Adult Literacy (over 15 years) 94.5%
Natural Resources Copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas
Main Industry/Export Agriculture: Artichokes, asparagus, avocados, blueberries, coffee, cocoa, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, pineapples, guavas, bananas, apples, lemons, pears, coca, tomatoes, mangoes, barley, medicinal plants, quinoa, palm oil, marigold, onion, wheat, dry beans; poultry, beef, pork, dairy products; guinea pigs; fish.

Industry: Mining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas and natural gas liquefaction; fishing and fish processing, cement, glass, textiles, clothing, food processing, beer, soft drinks, rubber, machinery, electrical machinery, chemicals, furniture.

Exports: Copper, gold, lead, zinc, tin, iron ore, molybdenum, silver; crude petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas; coffee, asparagus and other vegetables, fruit, apparel and textiles, fishmeal, fish, chemicals, fabricated metal products and machinery, alloys.

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